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生育让女性经历“再社会化”之痛

2019-07-27 11:14:03来源:快乐赛车投注_快乐赛车投注网址|网站首页

快乐赛车投注    ■ zhongguofunvbao·zhongguofunvwangjizhe caimin

    生育前,等待她们的是“生”还是“升”的抉择;

    生育后,她们要选择家庭是重心还是工作是重心?还要不要生二孩?

    生二孩后,等待她们的可能是更繁重的家庭负担,更大的发展危机……

    生育开启“再社会化”历程

    xingyuan,jinnian36sui,jisuanjizhuanyeyanjiusheng,cengjingzaiitqiyejiuzhi。congdiyigebaobaochusheng,tajiucizhichenglequanzhijiatingzhufu,rujin,tadediergebaobaoyedaoleshangyoueryuandenianji。jinnian,taxingyundiruzhiyijiaruanjiangongsi。xingyuanshuo,“kuailesaichetouzhuyijingzaijialidaileliunianle,suoyoudezhaopinqishidoubanianlingxianzhizai35sui,zheishikuailesaichetouzhuzuihoudejihui,kuailesaichetouzhubixuchulaigongzuo。”

    weilegongzuo,xingyuandejiashizhongbupingjing。tadebabajingchangbazheijuhuaguazaizuibian,“kuailesaichetouzhuyangnver,yongxinpeiyangni,shiweilejiguojiapeiyangyigerencai,bushiweilerangnidangjiatingfunv。”erxingyuandezhangfuzeqiangliefanduiqizizhongxingongzuo,weilezuzhiqizishangban,duzhumenburangtachuqu,buxihuanzhangmuniangzuodefan、bujieshoubaomudaojialilaidoushitafanduiqizizhongxingongzuodeliyou。weilebaozhuzheifenlaizhibuyidegongzuo,xingyuanxiabanhuijiadediyijianshijiushijizhangfuzuofan,zhihoudaizhehaizidaojiabianshangdechaoshimaihaodiertiandecai……

    juguojiatongjijufabudeshujujiancebaogaoxianshi,2018nian,benzhuankexueshengzhong,nvxingzhanbiwei52.5%,nvyanjiushengzhanbiwei49.6%,quanguonvxingjiuyerenyuanzhanbiwei43.7%。jintian,nianqingnvxingdeshoujiaoyuchengdu、jiuyebizhongdouyunanxingbuxiangshangxia。

    shanghaijiaotongdaxueguojiyugonggongshiwuxueyuanfujiaoshou、zhongguochengshizhiliyanjiuyuanyanjiuyuanshenyangduizhongguofunvbao·zhongguofunvwangjizhebiaoshi,duiyunianqingdenvxing,zaixiaoqijian,tamenjinglilequxingbiehuadejiaoyujingzheng。tamenbeiyaoqiuzaiyingshijiaoyuzhongqudeyouyichengji,kaorumingpaidaxue。zaizheigejieduan,jiazhang、laoshiheshehuiduitamendezhuyaoqidaishiquxingbiehuade。raner,zaijiehunshenghaizihou,xianshiyouqidainvxingyijiatingweizhongxin,qidainvxingzaijiatingzhongfuchugengduoshijianhejingli,morenjiatingneinannvjiaosebutong。zheixieqidaicushizhiyenvxingjieshouxingbiehuadejiaose。yinci,tamenweilejiatingdiaozhenglezijidezhiyefazhanguiji,jinglilexingbiede“zaishehuihua”,jienayuzunxunchuantongdeshehuixingbiefengong。ertamenzhangfudezhiyeshoudaojiehunshenghaizideyingxiangjiaoxiao。zheixiejinglitixianlenvxingshengminglichengdejiegouxingbuyizhi。

    zhilianzhaopinfabude《2020nianzhichangmamashengcunzhuangkuangdiaochabaogao》xianshi,duiyuguzhulaijiang,suishidouyoushengwakenengdeyihunweiyunvxingduizhiyefazhanyuqizuibeiguan。18.6%dezhichangmamazaiweilaisanniandeguihuazhongxuanze“zhiyequwending,cezhongjiating”。61.9%dezhichangmamarenweizaishengyuqiyeyaojinliangbaochigongzuolianghexuexiliyiqiufazhan。zhilianzhaopinzhixingfuzongcailiqiangbiaoshi,keyikanchu,dabufenzhichangmamabuyuanweishengyujihuafangqishiye。baogaotongshiyexianshi,zhichangmamazaizhiyefazhanshangdekunjingzhiyishi“mimang”。zaiweilaisanniandezhuyaozhiyeguihuazhong,zhichangmamajiang“qingxidezhiyeguihua”paijinleqiansanwei。

    生育带来的性别差异

    zhilianzhaopinfabude《2020zhongguonvxingzhichangxianzhuangdiaochabaogao》xianshi,58.25%denvxingzaoyule“yingpinguochengzhongbeiwenjihunyinshengyuzhuangkuang”,6.39%denvxingcengzaoyu“hunyujieduanbeidiaoganghuojiangxin”,erzaoyuzheixiebugongdenanxingquzhikeshu。zaijinshengzhangaishang,8.3%denvxingguiyinyu“zhaogujiating,zhichangjinglifensan”、9.02%denvxingguiyinyu“chuzaihunyujieduan,beidongshiqujinsheng”,eryinhunyubeidongshiqujinshengjihuidenanxingjinzhan1.34%,youcikejian,xingbiehehunyudaijinvxingdejinshengzuaiyunanxingxiangbigengjiamingxian。duiyuhunyinheshengyudetaidu,baogaohaixianshi,renweijiehunheshengyushirenshengbixuanxiangdenvxingjunyuandiyunanxing,zhengtibuzuyiban。ernanxingrenweijiehunheshengyushirenshengbixuanxiangdegaodaqicheng。

    jushanghaishekeyuanfabude《shanghailanpishu: shanghaishehuifazhanbaogao(2019)》xianshi,shanghainvxingbudasuanshengerhaideyuanyinjuyouduoyangxing,paizaiqian6weidebaokuojingjifudan、nianlingtaida、meirendaihaizi、yangyuhaizitaifeixin、yingxianggerenshiyefazhandengduozhongyinsu。qiyerenweinvxingzhigongshengyuzengjialelaodonglichengben,qiyeduidainvxingjiuyedeyingduifangshicunzaijiuyeqishiheweifajiechu。jiechu“sanqi”nvzhigong,qiyeningkechengdanjingjipeichangyebuyuanyihuifulaodongguanxi。

快乐赛车投注    bukefouren,zaishengyuwentishang,nvxingraobukaixingbiebupingdengdekunjing。

    nanjingdaxueshehuixueyuanfujiaoshouxuqibiaoshi,kuailesaichetouzhuguomuqianzhengchuyudiercirenkouzhuanbian,hunyinjiatingzhengjinglizhuanbian,meigejiating,wulunshinanxinghaishinvxingzaijinxingshengyujueceshidouhuilixingjuece,panduanshifoushengyu、shengyuyihaihuoerhaiduifuqishuangfanghuiyoushenmeyingxiang,shenghuohuifashengshenmebianhua。guowaiyanjiufaxian,shengyuduinannvgongzishouruyoujieranbutongdeyingxiang,muqindegongzihuishoudaomingxianchengfa,erduifuqindegongziqueshaoyouyijia。

快乐赛车投注    jiyu1989~2015zhongguojiankangyuyingyangzhuizongdiaochashuju,xuqiyanjiuleshengyuduikuailesaichetouzhuguonannvchengzhenzhigonggongzishourudeyingxiangjiqibiandongqushi。tafaxian,zaijin30niandeshijiankuadunei,nannv(chengzhenzhigong)shengyuhoudegongzishouruchengxianliangzhongbutongdebianhuaguiji。20shiji80niandaimo,shengyuhounanxingdegongzishouruhuiyoutisheng,ernvxingdegongzishourumeiyoushoudaomingxiandefumianyingxiang。cihou,duiyunanxing,shengyudegongziyijiayingxiangyuelaiyuexiao,xianzaizhujianxiaoshi。erduiyunvxing,shengyuhougongzishourudechengfayuelaiyueda,dao2015nian,meishengyuyigehaizi,nvxingdegongzishouruxiajiangyue30%。tongshinannvjiangongzichayiyezhujianzengda。

    xuqibiaoshi,shengyuduinvxinggongzishourudechengfaxiaoyingzaiguoyoubumenheshichangbumenzhijiancunzaimingxianchayi。yuguoyoubumenxiangbi,yiyingliweidaoxiangdeshichangbumenduinvxinggengjiabuyouhao,yinershengyuduimuqindegongzichengfayezaishichangbumenbiaoxiandegengjiatuchu。zijingjitizhigaigeyilai,kuailesaichetouzhuguoshichangbumenbuduankuoda,yuelaiyueduodenvxingkaishizaishichangbumengongzuo,zheishidaozhishengyuduinvxingdegongzichengfasuishijiankuaisushangshengdezhongyaoyinsu。

    全面二孩政策下的抉择

快乐赛车投注    kuailesaichetouzhuguo2016nianshishi“quanmianlianghai”zhengcehou,shenyangjinxingleyixiangguanyu《erhaimamadezhiyefazhanguiji》yanjiu。2017nian~2019nian,taxianhoufangtanle26weishanghaiyiyuerhaimama,tamenjuedaduoshushigaoshourugaoxuelidebailingnvxing。26weibeifangzhe,nianlingcong30suidao46suibudeng,5weibenkexueli,14weishuoshixueli,7weiboshixueli,17weishidushengnv。suoyoubeifangzhedouyou5~10niandegongzuojingyan,qizhong14weizaigonggongbumengongzuo,2weizaiguoqi,3weiwaiqi,2weisiqi,1weichuangye,1weiziyouzhiyezhe。beifangzhegerenshuihounianshourucong10wanyuandao100wanyuanbudeng,jiatingshuihounianshouruzai20wanyuandao170wanyuanbudeng。

快乐赛车投注    shenyangjieshao,fangtandejieguoxianshi,jinguanjuedaduoshubeifangzhezaishengyuerhaihourengrancongshiquanzhigongzuo,dantamendezhiyefazhanguijichengxianchuduoyuanxingyufuzaxing。tamenmianlindegongtongjuxianbaokuotuoyujigoukejixingbuzu,zhangfuyuercanyudi,yijierhaidailaidezengjiadetiliherenzhilaodong。zaijiawufangmian,you12weibeifangzhebiaoshizhangfujihubucanyujiawu,zhiyou3weibiaoshizhangfunengchengdanyibandejiawu;zaiyuerfangmian,you11weibiaoshizhangfuhenshaocanyuyuer,zhiyou3weibiaoshizhangfunengfendanyibandeyuerlaodong。

快乐赛车投注    shenyangjiangzhei26weibeifangzhedezhiyefazhanguijiguinaweisizhongleixing。zhiyeshangshengxing,jizaishengyuertaihouchixubuduantourugongzuo,jinglilezhiweihuoshourudeshangsheng。danzheileinvxingjinzhanbeifangzhezhongde1/4,qizhong6weishidushengnv。zhiyehuidanxing,jizaishengyuertaizhihoujinglilezhiyezhongduan,danzaitiaocaohuozhezhongxingongzuozhihoujinglilezhiwei/shourudehuifuhuozheshangsheng。zheileinvxingyou4wei,qizhong3weishidushengnv,tamenzhongduanzhiyedezhijieyuanyinshigongzuoshijianbulinghuo、xiangjihaizigengduopeiban。zhiyezhongduanxing,zheileinvxingyou5wei,tamenjinglilegongzuoshijianheshourudeshuangzhongjianshao。tamenzhongduanshiyezhuyaoyinweiquefajiatingheshehuideyuerzhichi。zhiyetingzhixing,zheileibeifangzhedaduozaigonggongbumengongzuo,tamengongzuowending,danquefashangshengliudongdekongjian,zaierhaichushenghou,shenghuozhongxinzhuanxiangjiating。

    fangtanzhong,shenyangfaxianlejigebukehushidexianxiang: zaiyoushanghaihujideertaimamazhong,zaizhidehaishidaduoshu,zheizhuyaoshiyinweitamenyoushangyidaiyijibaomubangmang。tebieshidushengnv,yinweinengdedaojiatinggengduodeyuerzhichi,zaizhiyefazhanshangdeyingxiangzuixiao。mijixingmuzhizainvxingshenshangtixiandehenmingxian。daduoshujiatingdoujihaizizhunbeilexuequfang,baogezhongxingquban,zaihaizishenshangtouruledaliangderenzhilaodong,tamendezhangfugengshaocaoxinzinvjiaoyu。zaiyuerfangmiantourudeshijianjingliwufazhuanbianweirenliziben,duitamendeshiyefazhankenengchanshengyingxiang。zaifeigonggongbumengongzuodenvxingzhong,shengyuertaizhihouzhiyezhongduanhuozhiyezhuanhuanhenchangjian,tamendegongzuozhongxinzhuanxiangyuer,dantamenzhangfudezhiyehenshaojinglizheizhongzhuanbian。

    shenyanghaibiaoshi,oumeidewenxianxianshi,youduogehaizidemuqinyuzhishengyuyigehaizidemuqinxiangbi,gengkenengjinglizhiyezhongduan。muqinqingxiangyuzaishengyulianggehaizizhihoulikaizhichang。genjukuailesaichetouzhudechangshilaituice,zaiguoneiqingkuangkenengyechabuduo。shengyuleerhaidenvxinggengkenengjinglizhiyezhongduan,gengkenengbianchengquanzhimama。



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